Category Archives: History of Sudan

Sudan Facial Scarification

Taylor W. Anderson

May 3, 2011

Most Dinka boys and girls don’t cry when the local sorcerer takes a red-hot knife to their dark faces. If they wince or cry or react to the pain they will lose face in the community, so it’s best to sit through the process in peace.

Facial scarification is practiced throughout Sudan, and various marks across the faces of tribesmen give identity to the tribe and beauty to its women.

Men of the Dinka tribe in South Sudan scar their faces with three parallel lines across the forehead in a rugged display of courage to the tribe.

“It is a chance for youths to demonstrate their bravery in front of their peers and elders,” said Emily Sloane, a humanitarian worker in Juba and eastern Congo. “Anyone who cries or resists the process loses a great deal of face.”

Dinka boys receive their scars around adolescence to mark the transition to manhood, when they take the responsibilities of the other men in the nomad tribe.

The scars can also be an eternal message to outsiders which tribe the Dinka belong to, or it can be used in an effort to display beauty to those within a tribe, as is sometimes the case.

Some tribes have dots to distinguish themselves, Sloane says. Others trust the sorcerer’s hand at lining their heads with an incision in a permanent crown.

Members that choose not to permanently scar themselves can face discrimination, “since they’re considered to have abandoned their traditions,” Sloane said. “Some people were hesitant to recognize Riek Machar…who had not gone through the ritual of scarring.”

Machar illustrates what may be a trend in Sudan scarification: That more education, typically modern families aren’t scarring their faces anymore, as much of the country once did.

Regardless of its purpose, the ritual is phasing out of parts of Sudan, as has happened in neighboring Congo. It’s use and practice is slow to leave the south, however. Much of the Dinka tribe wanders the areas close to or in the southern part of the country, which its own country in July 2011.

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Sudan’s Roads

Taylor W. Anderson

Mar. 9, 2011

South Sudan’s Roads

HED: Lack of roads pose problem to Africa’s newest country

If you think Montana’s roads are a problem, try driving from Missoula to Lolo in an hour and a half.

That’s the reality for some workers in South Sudan, where an estimated nine miles of paved roads exist in Africa’s newest country.

A January referendum that will likely split Africa’s largest country in two this July doesn’t have the roads to support the economic necessities of a newfound country.

Emily Sloane is a University of Montana graduate working in Africa. She spent time in South Sudan (SSD) during the last year working on humanitarian efforts throughout the south before moving to Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The lack of roads will likely create turmoil for the SSD to establish itself as a new country with great existing potential, she said, which may hurt the new country’s efforts to thrive.

“Roads will certainly be an issue in the new country,” Sloane said, “Since all the existing infrastructure leads north.”

The north reportedly has over 10,500 miles of paved roads, according to an article by the Economoist.

The road issue only reiterates the inequality that has been created by years of oppression by the government of Omar al-Bashir in the north ruled over the people of the south.

SSD will also have issues creating an economy that allows the new country to prosper.

Currently, 98 percent of the SSD government funding comes from oil production, as opposed to nearly 50 percent in the north, according to the World Bank’s country profile statistics.

With current funding established under al-Bashir rule, SSD may have trouble generating wealth from oil production. Current pipelines lead to the north, while most of the oil exists in the resource-rich south, creating production issues.

Sudan currently boasts the 20th most oil reserves in the world.

Sudan Country Brief

Where’s the food?

http://www.fews.net/docs/Publications/Sudan_Alert_May_2010_final.pdf

Colonization of Africa

I mentioned earlier an article by Ali Mazrui in which he explained the two main causes of conflict in Africa: over identity and over resources.

Here’s a map that explains the problems of colonization in the late 19th century.

A continent as diverse as Africa cannot be split by land grabs. Obviously this was not the thought of these countries, and tribes were forced to share the same boundaries and live amongst each other.

A map